Diagnosis of huanglongbing and detection of associated agents: from disease symptoms to laboratory tools
Symptoms associated with HLB (huanglongbing) in citrus plants, although well known and distinguishable in many cases, can under certain circumstances induce doubts on recognition of diseased trees. For this reason, diagnostic methods based either on the reaction of the plant or on the identification of the associated pathogen are necessary. In this review, we present a collection of publications related to HLB diagnostic and detection of its associated causal agents, the bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter spp. A list of primers used in PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) is made available, as well as the characterization of visual symptoms of the disease.