Economic sustainability of the citrus industry under the huanglongbing scenario
The citriculture has high economic importance for Brazil and is facing major problems with the huanglongbing (HLB), especially with respect to economic viability due to disease control. To assess the economic viability, indexes of productive system of orange orchards older than 5 years, located in regions with the presence of the disease, carried out with a good management were compared to orchards with similar age but in regions where the management of HLB was not started. The data presented and analyzed are indicative of prices prevailing in the 2008/2009 period. The areas with the presence of the disease showed a 26.4% increase in the use of spraying machines, due to additional applications of insecticides. In addition, 1.2 to 1.9 people/ha/year for inspections were needed. In the case of labor, the additional use for the management of the disease with sprays and inspection increased 47.9%. Financially, the highest impact was on products with a difference of U$ 118.00/ha/year. In summary, depending on the disease management used, the additional costs can range from U$ 97.40/ha/year up to U$ 472.12/ha/year. For sustainable farming, it is important to have an increase in productivity and accomplish it, other crop management techniques have been shown to be effective, such as high planting density and irrigation.